- Business Ethics Tutorial
- Business Ethics - Home
- Business Ethics - Introduction
- Changing Business Landscape
- Business Ethics - Moral Reasoning
- Customer Stakeholder
- Ethical Issues in Marketing
- Business Ethics - HRM
- Business Ethics - Finance
- Ethics in Workplace
- Business Ethics - Employees & Morals
- Ethics at the Individual Level
- Work Ethics & Workplace
- Environmental Challenges
- Business Ethics - Cyber Age
- Business Ethics - Workplace Violence
- Business Ethics Useful Resources
- Business Ethics - Quick Guide
- Business Ethics - Useful Resources
- Business Ethics - Discussion
- Selected Reading
- UPSC IAS Exams Notes
- Developer's Best Practices
- Questions and Answers
- Effective Resume Writing
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Business Ethics - Employees & Morals
Employees often need to make various moral decisions in the workplace. While many of these workplace decisions have to be made depending on moral obligations, some morally supportable decisions may require courage and need to be performed beyond the generally accepted norms.
While discussing workplace ethics, six predominant subjects are of primary importance. These are −
- Obligations to the firm
- Abuse of one’s position
- Bribery and kickbacks
- The obligations to third parties
- Employee’s self-interest
Obligations to the Firm
Employees are hired for the company’s tasks. The employees may obligate themselves to do the work of the particular company for financial gains. The employers often have numerous conditions to employment which the employee has to follow. These may include dress codes and respectful behavior.
Loyalty to the Company
Most people have a viewpoint that employees must have some moral obligations to stay loyal to their organizations. It is true that employees are obligated to do the tasks offered to them, but is it acceptable to have an obligation to work for the company in a manner that is beyond the assigned jobs?
Many employers may think so, but is not mentioned anywhere. The employees are not bound or obligated to have any kind of loyalty to the employers. But on a moral ground, loyalty to the company is often considered to be a good thing and it is plausible that the loyalty is rewarded through pay-raises, promotions, and good recommendations etc.
Conflicts of Interest
Employees can have a conflict of interest with the company. Some of these conflicts of interest are minor and include general workplace conditions or situations. However, some other conflicts may be serious and can let the employees to show disloyalty.
Generally, employees must avoid significant conflicts of interest by not involving themselves in disloyal activities. However, it is difficult enough to decide when a conflict is significant and it may not always clear what employees should do besides resisting the temptation to be disloyal.
Abuse of Official Position
Using the official position for private or personal gains is often considered as an abuse of power. Such abuse can result from disloyalty.
Insider trading occurs when an employee has access to company information that’s usually unavailable to the public and can have an impact on the stock prices. For example, some employees may come to know that their company is going to be bankrupt before general public and they can sell all their stock. People who tend to buy the stocks will be deceived. It is also a kind of insider trading to encourage near ones to sell their stock having such “insider information.”
Companies can often have “trade secrets” which they don’t want to share with other organizations, and few employees may divulge such information to the benefit of competing organizations which is unethical.
Three major arguments why trade secrets should be protected by the law are −
- These are intellectual property.
- Trade secrets theft is wrong.
- Stealing trade secrets is a violation of the confidentiality terms.
Sharing trade secrets and obeying confidentiality information is a difficult moral issue. People have the right to seek and advance employment and it is not easy to separate proprietary information from a worker’s own skills and technical knowledge.
Bribes and Kickbacks
Bribery is aimed to letting someone to act against their duties. Bribes can be very serious when it can injure people. Kickbacks are also a form of bribery that involves a person to uses his/her position to benefit a party or someone.
Bribing foreign officials for favors could harm people. However, instances of bribing are numerous and they include both large and small organizations.
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation had the culture of bribing foreign officials and it paid $22 million to get aircraft contracts with foreign governments. These bribes harm governments as they have to pay too much for aircrafts, and the harm can propagate to citizens who pay taxes. In this case, the knowledge of the bribery caused a political crisis in the Japanese government.
Gifts and Entertainment
Gifts and entertainment may be used to reward and encourage certain behavior from employees. This can result in a conflict of interest. Entertainment isn’t as likely to be morally wrong if allowed to be used according to ethical standards.
The following considerations may be considered while judging the ethics of gifting −
The Price of the Gift − Gifts of huge prices are more likely a bribe.
The Purpose of the Gift − Gift can be used to encourage, for advertising, or as a bribe.
The Circumstances − A gift given at a special occasion is different than a gift on non-special occasions, and a gift given openly is more ethical.
The Position of the Person Receiving the Gift − A person in a position to reciprocate is more likely to be taking a bribe.
The Accepted Practices − Gifts as “tips” for a waiter or waitress is norm, but to a CEO; it is clearly unethical.
The Company’s Policy − Some companies may have stricter rules about gifts than others.
The Law − Gifts against the law are usually unacceptable.
Obligations to Third Parties
A person is morally obligated to let others know about dangerous and deceptive business practice. However, employees should compare and judge the importance of their job duties and personal interests with the importance of the interests of others. It can be morally preferable to let the third parties know about immoral and illegal business practices, even when it is not a moral obligation to do so.
Whistleblowing is the act of going public with significantly immoral or illegal acts of an organization one is part of. However, someone is not a whistle blower for discussing the embarrassing or rude behavior with public, and a whistle blower doesn’t need to involve in sabotage or violence.
The reasoning given to judge a whistle-blowing activity may include the following −
The motive must be ethical. The employee must act against the organization that committed a significant immoral or illegal act.
The whistleblower should look for less harmful ways to resolve the issue first. Employees should tell the management and executives of wrong-doing before making the information public.
The whistleblower should have enough evidence. It is unethical to accuse a company when there’s a possibility of company being innocent.
The company’s fault must be specific and significant. The wrong-doing must have specific and significant reasons.
Are the people obligated to save the interests of others by making misconducts known to the management or by alerting the public by making significant immoral acts committed by companies publicly?
It is always preferable to think rationally and impartially regarding morality. It is important to think about our life and ask the following questions −
Are we following authorities blindly?
Are we suffering from a moral tunnel vision?
Are we mindlessly doing what is asked from us, without considering the impact on outside parties?
Are we considering about our possible roles as accomplices in the immoral activities?
Are we having a proper view of our interests against those of others?
Is there any substantial evidence for acting against the norms?
Morality often wants us to consider the interests of everyone who can be affected by our decisions and also about the situations we are in. We can have serious social and personal obligations and depends on all these important and unique factors.